Журнал высшей нервной деятельности им. И.П. Павлова, 2022, T. 72, № 1, стр. 55-76

Нейротехнологии нефармакологической терапии нарушений сна

В. Б. Дорохов 1*, А. Н. Пучкова 1

1 Лаборатория нейробиологии сна и бодрствования, ФГБУН Институт высшей нервной деятельности и нейрофизиологии РАН
Москва, Россия

* E-mail: vbdorokhov@mail.ru

Поступила в редакцию 09.08.2021
После доработки 14.09.2021
Принята к публикации 14.09.2021

Аннотация

Сон необходим для поддержания нормальных процессов гомеостаза и консолидации памяти, и особенно важную роль играет глубокая, третья стадия сна. Однако значительная часть населения страдает от низкого качества сна, бессонницы и проблем с засыпанием. Фармакологическое лечение этих проблем не всегда возможно или оправданно, и в последние годы мы наблюдаем возросший интерес к нефармакологическим методам воздействия на засыпание и сон. В данном обзоре рассмотрены различные подходы к улучшению качества сна и ускорению засыпания: сенсорные воздействия различной модальности, подходы транскраниальной стимуляции, нормализация суточных ритмов сна-бодрствования. В статье рассмотрены основные возможные механизмы их действия. При нефармакологической терапии наиболее часто обнаруживаются эффекты усиления медленноволновой активности мозга в третьей стадии сна. Обсуждается область применимости различных подходов: от исключительно исследовательских до применимых в клинической практике и в виде потребительских устройств.

Ключевые слова: нарушения сна, нефармакологическая терапия, стимуляция во сне, звуковая стимуляция, транскраниальная стимуляция, медленные волны

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