Журнал высшей нервной деятельности им. И.П. Павлова, 2021, T. 71, № 2, стр. 213-236

Хронические нарушения сознания: диагностика и прогноз

Л. А. Майорова 12*, М. В. Петрова 23, И. В. Пряников 2, А. В. Гречко 2

1 Институт высшей нервной деятельности и нейрофизиологии Российской академии наук
Москва, Россия

2 ФГБНУ “Федеральный научно-клинический центр реабилитологии и реаниматологии”
Москва, Россия

3 Медицинский институт Российского университета дружбы народов
Москва, Россия

* E-mail: larimayor@gmail.com

Поступила в редакцию 21.10.2020
После доработки 05.12.2020
Принята к публикации 22.12.2020

Аннотация

Обзор посвящен анализу литературы по исследованию состояний патологического нарушения (угнетения) сознания на основе применения нейровизуализационных, электрофизиологических и других неинвазивных методик оценки активности нервной системы. Освещены проблемы постановки диагноза и прогнозирования восстановления пациентов с хроническими нарушениями сознания. Рассматриваются нейровизуализационные, электрофизиологические, физиологические и другие корреляты хронических нарушений сознания, таких как состояние минимального сознания и синдром ареактивного бодрствования. Обсуждаются пути решения проблем диагностики и прогноза при хронических нарушениях сознания.

Ключевые слова: хронические нарушения сознания, вегетативное состояние/синдром ареактивного бодрствования, состояние минимального сознания, нейровизуализация, ЭЭГ, ТМС, ИМК, ФБИКСС, вариабельность сердечного ритма, реабилитационный потенциал

DOI: 10.31857/S0044467721020076

Список литературы

  1. Александров М.В., Александрова Т.В., Повалюхина Е.С. Электроэнцефалографический мониторинг в отделении реанимации и интенсивной терапии. Вестник Северо-Западного государственного медицинского университета им. И.И. Мечникова. 2018. 10 (3): 81–90.

  2. Александрова Е.В., Тенедиева В.Д., Потапов А.А. Посттравматические бессознательные состояния. Москва: “ГЭОТАР-Медиа”. 2015. 392 с.

  3. Гнездицкий В.В., Пирадов М.А. Нейрофизиология комы и нарушения сознания (анализ и интерпретация клинических наблюдений). Иваново: ПресСто. 2015. 528 с.

  4. Гриндель О.М. Электроэнцефалография человека при черепно-мозговой травме. Москва: Наука. 1988. 200 с.

  5. Гриндель О.М., Романова Н.В., Зайцев О.С., Воронов В.Г., Скорятина И.Г. Математический анализ электроэнцефалограмм в процессе восстановления сознания после тяжелой черепно-мозговой травмы. Журнал неврологии и психиатрии им. С.С. Корсакова. 2006. 12: 47–51.

  6. Добронравова И.С. Реорганизация электрической деятельности мозга человека при угнетении и восстановлении сознания (церебральная кома): Дис. д-ра биол. наук: 03.00.13. Ирина Сергеевна Добронравова. М., 1996. 76 с.

  7. Доброхотова Т.А., Гриндель О.М., Брагина Н.Н., Потапов А.А., Шарова Е.В., Князева Н.А. Восстановление сознания после длительной комы у больных с тяжелой черепно-мозговой травмой. Журнал невропатологии и психиатрии им. С.С. Корсакова. 1985. 85 (5): 720–726.

  8. Доброхотова Т.А., Потапов А.А., Зайцев О.С., Лихтерман Л.Б. Обратимые посткоматозные бессознательные состояния. Ж. Социальная и клиническая психиатрия. 1996. 2: 26–36.

  9. Зайцев О.С. Психопатология тяжелой черепно-мозговой травмы. Москва: Медпресс-Информ. 2014. 334 с.

  10. Захарова Н.Е., Потапов А.А., Корниенко В.Н., Пронин И.Н., Зайцев О.С., Гаврилов А.Г., Фадеева Л.М., Ошоров А.В., Сычев А.А., Такуш С.В. Динамические исследования структуры мозолистого тела и кортикоспинальных трактов с помощью диффузионно-тензорной МРТ при диффузных аксональных повреждениях. 2010. 3: 3–10.

  11. Кондратьева Е.А., Авдюнина И.А., Кондратьев А.Н., Улитин А.Ю., Иванова Н.Е., Петрова М.В., Лугинина Е.В., Гречко А.В. Определение признаков сознания и прогнозирование исхода у пациентов в вегетативном состоянии. Актуальные вопросы анестезиологии и реаниматологии. 2016. 71 (4): 273–280.

  12. Курганский А.В. Функциональная организация мозга человека в состоянии покоя. Журнал высшей нервной деятельности им. И.П. Павлова. 2018. 68 (5): 567–580.

  13. Пирадов М.А., Супонева Н.А., Сергеев Д.В., Червяков А.В., Рябинкина Ю.В., Синицын Д.О., Пойдашева А.Г., Кремнева Е.И., Морозова С.Н., Язева Е.Г., Легостаева Л.А. Структурно-функциональные основы хронических нарушений сознания. Анналы клинической и экспериментальной неврологии. 2018. 12: 6–15.

  14. Потапов А.А., Данилов Г.В., Сычев А.А., Захарова Н.Е., Пронин И.Н., Савин И.А., Ошоров А.В., Полупан А.А., Александрова Е.В., Струнина Ю.В., Лихтерман Л.Б., Охлопков В.А., Латышев Я.А., Челушкин Д.М., Баранич А.И., Кравчук А.Д. Клинические и магнитно-резонансные томографические предикторы длительности комы, объема интенсивной терапии и исходов при черепно-мозговой травме. Вопросы нейрохирургии имени Н.Н. Бурденко. 2020. 84 (4): 5–16.

  15. Потапов А.А., Крылов В.В., Гаврилов А.Г., Кравчук А.Д., Лихтерман Л.Б., Петриков С.С., Талыпов А.Э., Захарова Н.Е., Ошоров А.В., Солодов А.А. Рекомендации по диагностике и лечению тяжелой черепно-мозговой травмы. Часть 1. Организация медицинской помощи и диагностика. Вопросы нейрохирургии им. Н.Н. Бурденко. 2015. 79 (6): 100–106.

  16. Трошина Е.М., Окнина Л.Б., Копачка М.М. Применение ВП в клинической практике. Нейрофизиологические исследования в клинике. (Издание второе, переработанное и дополненное). Москва: ФГАУ НМИЦ нейрохирургии им. ак. Н.Н. Бурденко. 2019. 209–223.

  17. Шарова Е.В. Электрографические корреляты реакций мозга на афферентные стимулы при посткоматозных бессознательных состояниях у больных с тяжелой черепно-мозговой травмой реакции. Физиология человека. 2005. 31 (3): 5–15.

  18. Шарова Е.В., Романова Н.В. ЭЭГ при черепно-мозговой травме. Нейрофизиологические исследования в клинике. (Издание второе, переработанное и дополненное). Москва: ФГАУ НМИЦ нейрохирургии им. ак. Н.Н. Бурденко. 2019. 87–101 с.

  19. Шарова Е.В., Челяпина М.В., Коробкова Е.В., Куликов М.А., Зайцев О.С. ЭЭГ-корреляты восстановления сознания после тяжелой черепно-мозговой травмы. Журнал “Вопросы нейрохирургии” имени Н.Н. Бурденко. 2014. 78 (1): 14–25.

  20. Шарова Е.В., Щекутьев Г.А., Окнина Л.Б., Зайцев О.С., Трошина Е.М. Прогностическая значимость электрической активности мозга (ЭЭГ и ВП) при затяжных посттравматических бессознательных состояниях. Доктор Ру (Научно-практический журнал). 2008. 4: 30–37.

  21. Щекутьев Г.А., Потапов А.А., Брагина Н.Н., Маневич А.З. Вызванные потенциалы. Клиническое руководство по черепно-мозгoвой травме (под ред. Коновалова А.Н., Лихтермана Л.Б., Потапова А.А.). Москва: Антидор. 1998. 387–394.

  22. Aaslid R., Lindegaard K.F., Sorteberg W., Nornes H. Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in humans. Stroke. 1989. 20 (1): 45–52.

  23. Abdalmalak A., Milej D., Norton L., Debicki D.B., Gofton T., Diop M., Owen A.M., St Lawrence K. Single-session communication with a locked-in patient by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Neurophotonics. 2017. 4 (04): 040501.

  24. Agbangla N.F., Audiffren M., Albinet C.T. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of brain activation during cognitive aging: A systematic review of an emerging area of research. Ageing Res Rev. 2017. 38: 52–66.

  25. Andrews K., Murphy L., Munday R., Littlewood C. Misdiagnosis of the vegetative state: Retrospective study in a rehabilitation unit. Br Med J. 1996. 313 (7048): 13–16.

  26. Angerer M., Schabus M., Raml M., Pichler G., Kunz A.B., Scarpatetti M., Trinka E., Blume C. Actigraphy in brain-injured patients – A valid measurement for assessing circadian rhythms? BMC Med. 2020. 18 (106).

  27. Bagnato S., Boccagni C., Sant’Angelo A., Prestandrea C., Mazzilli R., Galardi G. EEG predictors of outcome in patients with disorders of consciousness admitted for intensive rehabilitation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2015. 126 (5): 959–966.

  28. Bai Y., Xia X., Li X., Wang Y., Yang Y., Liu Y., Liang Z., He J. Spinal cord stimulation modulates frontal delta and gamma in patients of minimally consciousness state. Neuroscience. 2017a. 346: 247–254.

  29. Bai Y., Xia X., Liang Z., Wang Y., Yang Y., He J., Li X. Frontal connectivity in EEG gamma (30–45Hz) respond to spinal cord stimulation in minimally conscious state patients. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017b. 11: 177.

  30. Bardin J.C., Fins J.J., Katz D.I., Hersh J., Heier L.A., Tabelow K., Dyke J.P., Ballon D.J., Schiff N.D., Voss H.U. Dissociations between behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based evaluations of cognitive function after brain injury. Brain. 2011. 134 (3): 769–782.

  31. Bardin J.C., Schiff N.D., Voss H.U. Pattern classification of volitional functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in patients with severe brain injury. Arch Neurol. 2012. 69 (2): 176–181.

  32. Bekinschtein T., Cologan V., Dahmen B., Golombek D. You are only coming through in waves: wakefulness variability and assessment in patients with impaired consciousness. Prog Brain Res. 2009a. 177 (C): 171–189.

  33. Bekinschtein T.A., Dehaene S., Rohaut B., Tadel F., Cohen L., Naccache L. Neural signature of the conscious processing of auditory regularities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009b. 106 (5): 1672–7.

  34. Bekinschtein T.A., Golombek D.A., Simonetta S.H., Coleman M.R., Manes F.F. Circadian rhythms in the vegetative state. Brain Inj. 2009c. 23 (11): 915–919.

  35. Bernat J.L. Prognostic Limitations of Syndromic Diagnosis in Disorders of Consciousness. AJOB Neurosci. 2016. 7 (1): 46–48.

  36. Blume C., Angerer M., Raml M., Del Giudice R., Santhi N., Pichler G., Kunz A.B., Scarpatetti M., Trinka E., Schabus M. Healthier rhythm, healthier brain? Integrity of circadian melatonin and temperature rhythms relates to the clinical state of brain-injured patients. Eur J Neurol. 2019. 26 (8): 1051–1059.

  37. Blume C., Lechinger J., Santhi N., del Giudice R., Gnjezda M.T., Pichler G., Scarpatetti M., Donis J., Michitsch G., Schabus M. Significance of circadian rhythms in severely brain-injured patients. Neurology. 2017. 88 (20): 1933–1941.

  38. Boly M., Faymonville M.E., Schnakers C., Peigneux P., Lambermont B., Phillips C., Lancellotti P., Luxen A., Lamy M., Moonen G., Maquet P., Laureys S. Perception of pain in the minimally conscious state with PET activation: an observational study. Lancet Neurol. 2008. 7 (11): 1013–1020.

  39. Boly M., Garrido M.I., Gosseries O., Bruno M.A., Boveroux P., Schnakers C., Massimini M., Litvak V., Laureys S., Friston K. Preserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state. Science (80-) . 2011. 332 (6031): 858–862.

  40. Boly M., Tshibanda L., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Noirhomme Q., Schnakers C., Ledoux D., Boveroux P., Garweg C., Lambermont B., Phillips C., Luxen A., Moonen G., Bassetti C., Maquet P., Laureys S. Functional connectivity in the default network during resting state is preserved in a vegetative but not in a brain dead patient. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009. 30 (8): 2393–2400.

  41. Bruno M.A., Majerus S., Boly M., Vanhaudenhuys, A., Schnakers C., Gosseries O., Boveroux P., Kirsch M., Demertzi A., Bernard C., Hustinx R., Moonen G., Laureys S. Functional neuroanatomy underlying the clinical subcategorization of minimally conscious state patients. J Neurol. 2012. 259 (6): 1087–1098.

  42. Calabrò R.S., Naro A., Manuli A., Leo A., De Luca R., Lo Buono V., Russo M., Bramanti A., Bramanti P. Pain perception in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness: What can limbic system tell us? Clin Neurophysiol. 2017. 128 (3): 454–462.

  43. Casali A.G., Gosseries O., Rosanova M., Boly M., Sarasso S., Casali K.R., Casarotto S., Bruno M.A., Laureys S., Tononi G., Massimini M. A theoretically based index of consciousness independent of sensory processing and behavior. Sci Transl Med. 2013. 5 (198): 198ra105.

  44. Casarotto S., Comanducci A., Rosanova M., Sarasso S., Fecchio M., Napolitani M., Pigorini A., G Casali A., Trimarchi P.D., Boly M., Gosseries O., Bodart O., Curto F., Landi C., Mariotti M., Devalle G., Laureys S., Tononi G., Massimini M. Stratification of unresponsive patients by an independently validated index of brain complexity. Ann Neurol. 2016. 80 (5): 718–729.

  45. Casarotto S., Romero Lauro L.J., Bellina V., Casali A.G., Rosanova M., Pigorini A., Defendi S., Mariotti M., Massimini M. EEG responses to TMS are sensitive to changes in the perturbation parameters and repeatable over time. PLoS One. 2010. 5 (4): e10281.

  46. Cauda F., Micon B.M., Sacco K., Duca S., D’Agata F., Geminiani G., Canavero S. Disrupted intrinsic functional connectivity in the vegetative state. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009. 80 (4): 429–431.

  47. Celesia G.G. Vegetative state two decades after the multi-society task force (MSTF) report. Brain Funct Responsiveness Disord Conscious. 2016. 171–184.

  48. Chellappa S.L., Morris C.J., Scheer F.A.J.L. Daily circadian misalignment impairs human cognitive performance task-dependently. Sci Rep. 2018. 8 (1).

  49. Chennu S., Annen J., Wannez S., Thibaut A., Chatelle C., Cassol H., Martens G., Schnakers C., Gosseries O., Menon D., Laureys S. Brain networks predict metabolism, diagnosis and prognosis at the bedside in disorders of consciousness. Brain. 2017. 140 (8): 2120–1232.

  50. Chennu S., Finoia P., Kamau E., Allanson J., Williams G.B., Monti M.M., Noreika V., Arnatkeviciute A., Canales-Johnson A., Olivares F., Cabezas-Soto D., Menon D.K., Pickard J.D., Owen A.M., Bekinschtein T.A. Spectral Signatures of Reorganised Brain Networks in Disorders of Consciousness. PLoS Comput Biol. 2014. 10 (10): e1003887.

  51. Childs N.L., Mercer W.N., Childs H.W. Accuracy of diagnosis of persistent vegetative state. Neurology. 1993. 43: 1465–1467.

  52. Cobos M.I., Guerra P.M., Vila J., Chica A.B. Heart-rate modulations reveal attention and consciousness interactions. Psychophysiology. 2019. 56 (3).

  53. Coleman M.R., Davis M.H., Rodd J.M., Robson T., Ali A., Owen A.M., Pickard J.D. Towards the routine use of brain imaging to aid the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness. Brain. 2009. 132 (9): 2541–2452.

  54. Cortese M.D., Riganello F., Arcuri F., Pugliese M.E., Lucca L.F., Dolce G., Sannita W.G. Coma recovery scale-r: Variability in the disorder of consciousness. BMC Neurol. 2015. 15: 186.

  55. Coyle D., Carroll A., Stow J., McCann A., Ally A., McElligott J. Enabling Control in the Minimally Conscious State in a Single Session with a Three Channel BCI. 1st Int Decod Work. 2012. (April): 1–4.

  56. Cruse D., Thibaut A., Demertzi A., Nantes J.C., Bruno M.A., Gosseries O., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Bekinschtein T.A., Owen A.M., Laureys S. Actigraphy assessments of circadian sleep-wake cycles in the Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States. BMC Med. 2013. 16 (1):134.

  57. De Vignemont F., Iannetti G.D. How many peripersonal spaces? Neuropsychologia. 2015. 70: 327–334.

  58. De Volder A.G., Goffinet A.M., Bol A., Michel C., Barsy T., Laterre C. Brain Glucose Metabolism in Postanoxic Syndrome: Positron Emission Tomographic Study. Arch Neurol. 1990. 47 (2): 197–204.

  59. De Weer A.S., Da Ros M., Berré J., Mélot C., Goldman S., Peigneux P. Environmental influences on activity patterns in altered states of consciousness. Eur J Neurol. 2011. 18 (12): 1432–1434.

  60. Deacon D., Grose-Fifer J., Hewitt S., Nagata M., Shelley-Tremblay J., Yang C.M. Physiological evidence that a masked unrelated intervening item disrupts semantic priming: Implications for theories of semantic representation and retrieval models of semantic priming. Brain Lang. 2004. 89 (1): 38–46.

  61. Demertzi A., Antonopoulos G., Heine L., Voss H.U., Crone J.S., de Los Angeles C., Bahri M.A., Di Perri C., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Charland-Verville V., Kronbichler M., Trinka E., Phillips C., Gomez F., Tshibanda L., Soddu A., Schiff N.D., Whitfield-Gabrieli S., Laureys S. Intrinsic functional connectivity differentiates minimally conscious from unresponsive patients. Brain. 2015. 138 (9): 2619–2631.

  62. Demertzi A., Antonopoulos G., Voss H.U., Crone J.S., Schiff N.D., Kronbichler M., Trinka E., De Los Angeles C., Gomez F., Bahri M.A., Heine L., Tshibanda L., Charland-Verville V., Whitfield-Gabrieli S. Laureys S. Audio-visual crossmodal fMRI connectivity differentiates single patients with disorders of consciousness. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014a. Conference Abstract: Belgian Brain Council 2014 MODULATING THE BRAIN: FACTS, FICTION, FUTURE.

  63. Demertzi A., Gómez F., Crone J.S., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Tshibanda L., Noirhomme Q., Thonnard M., Charland-Verville V., Kirsch M., Laureys S., Soddu A. Multiple fMRI system-level baseline connectivity is disrupted in patients with consciousness alterations. Cortex. 2014b. 52 (1): 35–46.

  64. Devalle G., Castiglioni P., Arienti C., Abbate C., Mazzucchi A., Agnello L., Merati G. Cardio-respiratory autonomic responses to nociceptive stimuli in patients with disorders of consciousness. PLoS One. 2018. 13 (9): 1083–1089.

  65. Di Lazzaro V., Oliviero A., Pilato F., Saturno E., Dileone M., Mazzone P., Insola A., Tonali P., Rothwell J. The physiological basis of transcranial motor cortex stimulation in conscious humans. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004. 115 (2): 255–266.

  66. Di Perri C., Bahri M.A., Amico E., Thibaut A., Heine L., Antonopoulos G., Charland-Verville V., Wannez S., Gomez F., Hustinx R., Tshibanda L., Demertzi A., Soddu A., Laureys S. Neural correlates of consciousness in patients who have emerged from a minimally conscious state: A cross-sectional multimodal imaging study. Lancet Neurol. 2016. 15 (8): 830–842.

  67. Ernst G. Heart-Rate Variability–More than Heart Beats? Front Public Heal. 2017. 5.

  68. Faugeras F., Rohaut B., Weiss N., Bekinschtein T.A., Galanaud D., Puybasset L., Bolgert F., Sergent C., Cohen L., Dehaene S., Naccache L. Probing consciousness with event-related potentials in the vegetative state. Neurology. 2011. 77 (3): 264–268.

  69. Fellinger R., Klimesch W., Schnakers C., Perrin F., Freunberger R., Gruber W., Laureys S., Schabus M. Cognitive processes in disorders of consciousness as revealed by EEG time-frequency analyses. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011. 122 (11): 2177–2184.

  70. Fernández-Espejo D., Bekinschtein T., Monti M.M., Pickard J.D., Junque C., Coleman M.R., Owen A.M. Diffusion weighted imaging distinguishes the vegetative state from the minimally conscious state. Neuroimage. 2011. 54 (1): 103–112.

  71. Fernández-Espejo D., Soddu A., Cruse D., Palacios E.M., Junque C., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Rivas E., Newcombe V., Menon D.K., Pickard J.D., Laureys S., Owen A.M. A role for the default mode network in the bases of disorders of consciousness. Ann Neurol. 2012. 72 (3): 335–343.

  72. Ferrarelli F., Massimini M., Sarasso S., Casali A., Riedner B.A., Angelini G., Tononi G., Pearce R.A. Breakdown in cortical effective connectivity during midazolam-induced loss of consciousness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010. 107 (6): 2681–2686.

  73. Fingelkurts A.A., Fingelkurts A.A., Bagnato S., Boccagni C., Galardi G. Life or death: Prognostic value of a resting EEG with regards to survival in patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states. PLoS One. 2011. 6 (10): e25967.

  74. Fischer D.B., Boes A.D., Demertzi A., Evrard H.C., Laureys S., Edlow B.L., Liu H., Saper C.B., Pascual-Leone A., Fox M.D., Geerling J.C. A human brain network derived from coma-causing brainstem lesions. Neurology. 2016. 87 (23): 2427–2434.

  75. Formisano R., D’Ippolito M., Catani S. Functional locked-in syndrome as recovery phase of vegetative state. Brain Inj. 2013. 27 (11): 1332.

  76. Friston K. Beyond phrenology: What can neuroimaging tell us about distributed circuitry? Annu Rev Neurosci. 2002. 25: 221–250.

  77. Fukudome Y., Abe I., Saku Y., Matsumura K., Sadoshima S., Utunomiya H., Fujishima M. Circadian blood pressure in patients in a persistent vegetative state. Am J Physiol - Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 1996. 270 (5 Pt 2): R1109–1114.

  78. Galanaud D., Perlbarg V., Gupta R., Stevens R.D., Sanchez P., Tollard E., de Champfleur N.M., Dinkel J., Faivre S., Soto-Ares G., Veber B., Cottenceau V., Masson F., Tourdias T., André E., Audibert G., Schmitt E., Ibarrola D., Dailler F., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Tshibanda L., Payen J.F., Le Bas J.F., Krainik A., Bruder N., Girard N., Laureys S., Benali H., Puybasset L. Assessment of white matter injury and outcome in severe brain trauma: A prospective multicenter cohort. Anesthesiology. 2012. 117 (6): 1300–1310.

  79. Gallegos-Ayala G., Furdea A., Takano K., Ruf C.A., Flor H., Birbaumer N. Brain communication in a completely locked-in patient using bedside near-infrared spectroscopy. Neurology. 2014. 82 (21): 1930–1932.

  80. Giacino J.T., Kalmar K., Whyte J. The JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised: Measurement characteristics and diagnostic utility. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004. 85 (12): 2020–2029.

  81. Giacino J.T., Schnakers C., Rodriguez-Moreno D., Kalmar K., Schiff N., Hirsch J. Behavioral assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness: gold standard or fool’s gold? Prog Brain Res. 2009. 177 (C): 33–48.

  82. Golkowski D., Merz K., Mlynarcik C., Kiel T., Schorr B., Lopez-Rolon A., Lukas M., Jordan D., Bender A., Ilg R. Simultaneous EEG–PET–fMRI measurements in disorders of consciousness: an exploratory study on diagnosis and prognosis. J Neurol. 2017. 264 (9): 1986–1995.

  83. Gosseries O., Zasler N.D., Laureys S. Recent advances in disorders of consciousness: Focus on the diagnosis. Brain Inj. 2014. 28 (9): 1141–1150.

  84. Graham D.I., Adams J.H., Murray L.S., Jennett B. Neuropathology of the vegetative state after head injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2005. 15 (3–4): 198–213.

  85. Graziano M.S.A., Cooke D.F. Parieto-frontal interactions, personal space, and defensive behavior. Neuropsychologia. 2006. 44 (13): 2621–2635.

  86. Guaraldi P., Sancisi E., La Morgia C., Calandra-Buonaura G., Carelli V., Cameli O., Battistini A., Cortelli P., Piperno R. Nocturnal melatonin regulation in post-traumatic vegetative state: A possible role for melatonin supplementation? Chronobiol Int. 2014. 31 (5): 741–745.

  87. Hagoort P., Brown C. The Processing Nature of the N400: Evidence from Masked Priming. J Cogn Neurosci. 1993. 5 (1): 34–44.

  88. Hauger S.L., Schanke A.K., Andersson S., Chatelle C., Schnakers C., Løvstad M. The Clinical Diagnostic Utility of Electrophysiological Techniques in Assessment of Patients with Disorders of Consciousness Following Acquired Brain Injury: A Systematic Review. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2017. 32 (3): 185–196.

  89. He J.H., Cui Y., Song M., Yang Y., Dang Y.Y., Jiang T.Z., Xu R.X. Decreased functional connectivity between the mediodorsal thalamus and default mode network in patients with disorders of consciousness. Acta Neurol Scand. 2015. 131 (3): 145–151.

  90. Hofmeijer J., van Putten M. EEG in postanoxic coma: Prognostic and diagnostic value. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016. 127 (4): 2047–2055.

  91. Höller Y., Thomschewski A., Bergmann J., Kronbichler M., Crone J.S., Schmid E.V., Butz K., Höller P., Nardone R., Trinka E. Connectivity biomarkers can differentiate patients with different levels of consciousness. Clin Neurophysiol. 2014. 125 (8): 1545–1455.

  92. Ilmoniemi R.J., Kičić D. Methodology for combined TMS and EEG. Brain Topogr. 2010. 22 (4): 233–248.

  93. Irani F., Platek S.M., Bunce S., Ruocco A.C., Chute D. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): An emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders. Clin Neuropsychol. 2007. 21 (1): 9–37.

  94. Jddotobsis F.F. Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters. Science (80-) . 1977. 198: 1264–1267.

  95. Jennett B. Thirty years of the vegetative state: Clinical, ethical and legal problems. Prog Brain Res. 2005. 150: 537–543.

  96. Jennett B., Bond M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet (London, England). 1975. 1 (7905): 480–484.

  97. Jox R.J., Bernat J.L., Laureys S., Racine E. Disorders of consciousness: Responding to requests for novel diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Lancet Neurol. 2012. 11 (8): 732–8.

  98. Kamper J.E., Garofano J., Schwartz D.J., Silva M.A., Zeitzer J., Modarres M., Barnett S.D., Nakase-Richardson R. Concordance of actigraphy with polysomnography in traumatic brain injury neurorehabilitation admissions. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2016. 31 (2): 117–125.

  99. Kang X.G., Li L., Wei D., Xu X.X., Zhao R., Jing Y.Y., Su Y.Y., Xiong L.Z., Zhao G., Jiang W. Development of a simple score to predict outcome for unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. Crit Care. 2014. 18 (1): R37.

  100. Kempny A.M., James L., Yelden K., Duport S., Farmer S., Playford E.D., Leff A.P. Functional near infrared spectroscopy as a probe of brain function in people with prolonged disorders of consciousness. NeuroImage Clin. 2016. 12: 312–319.

  101. King J.R., Sitt J.D., Faugeras F., Rohaut B., El Karoui I., Cohen L., Naccache L., Dehaene S. Information sharing in the brain indexes consciousness in noncommunicative patients. Curr Biol. 2013. 23 (19): 1914–1919.

  102. Koch C., Massimini M., Boly M., Tononi G. Neural correlates of consciousness: Progress and problems. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2016. 17 (5): 307–321.

  103. Komssi S., Kähkönen S., Ilmoniemi R.J. The Effect of Stimulus Intensity on Brain Responses Evoked by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Hum Brain Mapp. 2004. 21 (3): 154–164.

  104. Kotchoubey B., Vogel D., Lang S., Müller F. What kind of consciousness is minimal? Brain Inj. 2014. 28 (9): 1156–1163.

  105. Kutas M., Hillyard S.A. Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science (80-) . 1980. 207 (4427): 203–205.

  106. Landsness E., Bruno M.A., Noirhomme Q., Riedner B., Gosseries O., Schnakers C., Massimini M., Laureys S., Tononi G., Boly M. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Brain. 2011. 134 (8): 2222–2232.

  107. Lassen N.A., Ingvar D.H., Skinhøj E. Brain function and blood flow. Sci Am. 1978. 239 (4): 62–71.

  108. Laureys S., Faymonville M.E., Luxen A., Lamy M., Franck G., Maquet P. Restoration of thalamocortical connectivity after recovery from persistent vegetative state. Lancet. 2000. 355 (9217): 1790–1791.

  109. Laureys S., Faymonville M.E., Peigneux P., Damas P., Lambermont B., Del Fiore G., Degueldre C., Aerts J., Luxen A., Franck G., Lamy M., Moonen G., Maquet P. Cortical Processing of Noxious Somatosensory Stimuli in the Persistent Vegetative State. Neuroimage. 2002. 17 (2): 732–741.

  110. Laureys S., Goldman S., Phillips C., Van Bogaert P., Aerts J., Luxen A., Franck G., Maquet P. Impaired effective cortical connectivity in vegetative state: Preliminary investigation using PET. Neuroimage. 1999a. 9 (4): 377–382.

  111. Laureys S., Lemaire C., Maquet P., Phillips C., Franck G. Cerebral metabolism during vegetative state and after recovery to consciousness. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999b. 67 (1): 121.

  112. Laureys S., Perrin F., Faymonville M.E., Schnakers C., Boly M., Bartsch V., Majerus S., Moonen G., Maquet P. Cerebral processing in the minimally conscious state. Neurology. 2004. 63 (5): 916–918.

  113. Laureys S., Schiff N.D. Coma and consciousness: Paradigms (re)framed by neuroimaging. Neuroimage. 2012. 61 (2): 478–491.

  114. León-Carrión J., Eeckhout P. van, Domínguez-Morales M. del R., Pérez-Santamaría F.J. Survey: The locked-in syndrome: a syndrome looking for a therapy. Brain Inj. 2002. 16 (7): 571–582.

  115. Liang X., Zou Q., He Y., Yang Y. Coupling of functional connectivity and regional cerebral blood flow reveals a physiological basis for network hubs of the human brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013. 110 (5): 1929–1934.

  116. Løvstad M., Frøslie K.F., Giacino J.T., Skandsen T., Anke A., Schanke A.K. Reliability and diagnostic characteristics of the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised: Exploring the influence of raters level of experience. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2010. 25 (5): 349–356.

  117. Lucca L.F., Lofaro D., Pignolo L., Leto E., Ursino M., Cortese M.D., Conforti D., Tonin P., Cerasa A. Outcome prediction in disorders of consciousness: the role of coma recovery scale revised. BMC Neurol. 2019. 19 (1): 68.

  118. Lulé D., Noirhomme Q., Kleih S.C., Chatelle C., Halder S., Demertzi A., Bruno M.A., Gosseries O., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Schnakers C., Thonnard M., Soddu A., Kübler A., Laureys S. Probing command following in patients with disorders of consciousness using a brain-computer interface. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013. 124 (1): 101–106.

  119. Majerus S., Bruno M.A., Schnakers C., Giacino J.T., Laureys S. The problem of aphasia in the assessment of consciousness in brain-damaged patients. Prog Brain Res. 2009. 177 (C): 49–61.

  120. Matsumoto M., Sugama J., Okuwa M., Dai M., Matsuo J., Sanada H. Non-invasive monitoring of core body temperature rhythms over 72h in 10 bedridden elderly patients with disorders of consciousness in a Japanese hospital: A pilot study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2013. 57 (3): 428–432.

  121. Monti M.M., Rosenberg M., Finoia P., Kamau E., Pickard J.D., Owen A.M. Thalamo-frontal connectivity mediates top-down cognitive functions in disorders of consciousness. Neurology. 2015. 84 (2): 167–173.

  122. Monti M.M., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Coleman M.R., Boly M., Pickard J.D., Tshibanda L., Owen A.M., Laureys S. Willful modulation of brain activity in disorders of consciousness. N Engl J Med. 2010. 362 (7): 579–589.

  123. Moody M., Panerai R.B., Eames P.J., Potter J.F. Cerebral and systemic hemodynamic changes during cognitive and motor activation paradigms. Am J Physiol – Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005. 288 (657-6): R1581–1588.

  124. Moskała M., Krupa M., Gościński I., Traczewski W. Circadian rhythms of melatonin of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2004. 38 (5): 401–404.

  125. Naito M., Michioka Y., Ozawa K., Ito Y.I., Kiguchi M., Kanazawa T. A communication means for totally locked-in ALS patients based on changes in cerebral blood volume measured with near-infrared light. IEICE Trans Inf Syst. 2007. E90-D (7): 1028–1037.

  126. Naro A., Bramanti P., Leo A., Russo M., Calabrò R.S. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation in Patients with Chronic Disorder of Consciousness: A Possible Way to Cut the Diagnostic Gordian Knot? Brain Topogr. 2016a. 29 (4): 623–644.

  127. Naro A., Russo M., Leo A., Cannavò A., Manuli A., Bramanti A., Bramanti P., Calabrò R.S. Cortical connectivity modulation induced by cerebellar oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness: A marker of covert cognition? Clin Neurophysiol. 2016b. 127 (3): 1845–1854.

  128. Obrig H., Villringer A. Beyond the Visible Imaging the Human Brain With Light. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003. 1–18.

  129. Oknina L., Zaitsev O., Masherow E., Kopachka M., Sharova E. The Use of Event-Related Potentials for Predicting the Degree of Mental Recovery in Patients with Severe Brain Injury – A Prospective Study. J Adv Med Med Res. 2018. 27 (4): 1–13.

  130. Owen A.M., Coleman M.R., Boly M., Davis M.H., Laureys S., Pickard J.D. Detecting awareness in the vegetative state. Science (80-) . 2006. 313 (5792): 1402.

  131. Pan J., Xie Q., He Y., Wang F., Di H., Laureys S., Yu R., Li Y. Detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness using a hybrid brain-computer interface. J Neural Eng [Internet]. 2014. 11 (5): 56007.

  132. Paparrigopoulos T., Melissaki A., Tsekou H., Efthymiou A., Kribeni G., Baziotis N., Geronikola X. Melatonin secretion after head injury: A pilot study. Brain Inj. 2006. 20 (8): 873–8.

  133. Pattoneri P., Tirabassi G., Pelá G., Astorri E., Mazzucchi A., Borghetti A. Circadian blood pressure and heart rate changes in patients in a persistent vegetative state after traumatic brain injury. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2005. 7 (12): 734–739.

  134. Pokorny C., Klobassa D.S., Pichler G., Erlbeck H., Real R.G., Kübler A., Lesenfants D., Habbal D., Noirhomme Q., Risetti M., Mattia D., Müller-Putz G.R. The auditory P300-based single-switch brain-computer interface: Paradigm transition from healthy subjects to minimally conscious patients. Artif Intell Med. 2013. 59 (2): 81–90.

  135. Practice Guideline Update: Disorders of Consciousness. 2018. [Электронный ресурс] URL: https://www.aan.com/Guidelines/home/GuidelineDetail/926 (дата обращения: 15.12.2020).

  136. Qin P., Wu X., Huang Z., Duncan N.W., Tang W., Wolff A., Hu J., Gao L., Jin Y., Wu X., Zhang J., Lu L., Wu C., Qu X., Mao Y., Weng X., Zhang J., Northoff G. How are different neural networks related to consciousness? Ann Neurol [Internet]. 2015. 78 (4): 594–605.

  137. Ragazzoni A., Cincotta M., Giovannelli F., Cruse D., Young G.B., Miniussi C., Rossi S. Clinical neurophysiology of prolonged disorders of consciousness: From diagnostic stimulation to therapeutic neuromodulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017. 128 (9): 1629–1646.

  138. Ragazzoni A., Pirulli C., Veniero D., Feurra M., Cincotta M., Giovannelli F., Chiaramonti R., Lino M., Rossi S., Miniussi C. Vegetative versus Minimally Conscious States: A Study Using TMS-EEG, Sensory and Event-Related Potentials. PLoS One. 2013. 8 (2): e57069.

  139. Riganello F., Chatelle C., Schnakers C., Laureys S. Heart Rate Variability as an Indicator of Nociceptive Pain in Disorders of Consciousness? J Pain Symptom Manage. 2019. 57 (1): 47–56.

  140. Riganello F., Cortese M., Dolce G., Sannita W. Visual pursuit response in the severe disorder of consciousness: Modulation by the central autonomic system and a predictive model. BMC Neurol. 2013. 13.

  141. Riganello F., Larroque S.K., Bahri M.A., Heine L., Martial C., Carrière M., Charland-Verville V., Aubinet C., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Chatelle C., Laureys S., Di Perri C. A heartbeat away from consciousness: Heart rate variability entropy can discriminate disorders of consciousness and is correlated with resting-state fMRI brain connectivity of the central autonomic network. Front Neurol. 2018. 9.

  142. Rosanova M., Gosseries O., Casarotto S., Boly M., Casali A.G., Bruno M.A., Mariotti M., Boveroux P., Tononi G., Laureys S., Massimini M. Recovery of cortical effective connectivity and recovery of consciousness in vegetative patients. Brain. 2012. 135 (4): 1308–1320.

  143. Rosengarten B., Deppe M., Kaps M., Klingelhöfer J. Methodological Aspects of Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography and Recommendations for Simultaneous EEG Recording. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2012. 38 (6): 989–996.

  144. Rossetti A.O., Rabinstein A.A., Oddo M. Neurological prognostication of outcome in patients in coma after cardiac arrest. Lancet Neurol. 2016. 15 (6): 597–609.

  145. Rundgren M., Karlsson T., Nielsen N., Cronberg T., Johnsson P., Friberg H. Neuron specific enolase and S-100B as predictors of outcome after cardiac arrest and induced hypothermia. Resuscitation. 2009. 80 (7): 784–789.

  146. Salinet A.S.M., Panerai R.B., Robinson T.G. Effects of Active, Passive and Motor Imagery Paradigms on Cerebral and Peripheral Hemodynamics in Older Volunteers: A Functional TCD Study. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2012. 38 (6): 997–1003.

  147. Salinet A.S.M., Robinson T.G., Panerai R.B. Active, passive, and motor imagery paradigms: Component analysis to assess neurovascular coupling. J Appl Physiol. 2013. 114 (10): 1406–1412.

  148. Sambo C.F., Forster B., Williams S.C., Iannetti G.D. To blink or not to blink: Fine cognitive tuning of the defensive peripersonal space. J Neurosci. 2012a. 32 (37): 12921–12927.

  149. Sambo C.F., Liang M., Cruccu G., Iannetti G.D. Defensive peripersonal space: The blink reflex evoked by hand stimulation is increased when the hand is near the face. J Neurophysiol. 2012b. 107 (3): 880–889.

  150. Santhi N., Horowitz T.S., Duffy J.F., Czeisler C.A. Acute sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment associated with transition onto the first night of work impairs visual selective attention. PLoS One. 2007. 2 (11).

  151. Sarà M., Pistoia F., Pasqualetti P., Sebastiano F., Onorati P., Rossini P.M. Functional isolation within the cerebral cortex in the vegetative state: A nonlinear method to predict clinical outcomes. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2011. 25 (1): 35–42.

  152. Schabus M., Wislowska M., Angerer M., Blume C. Sleep and circadian rhythms in severely brain-injured patients – A comment. Clin Neurophysiol. 2018. 129 (8): 1780–1784.

  153. Schartner M., Seth A., Noirhomme Q., Boly M., Bruno M.A., Laureys S., Barrett A. Complexity of multi-dimensional spontaneous EEG decreases during propofol induced general anaesthesia. PLoS One. 2015. 10 (8).

  154. Schiff N.D. Cognitive motor dissociation following severe brain injuries. JAMA Neurol. 2015. 72 (12): 1413–1415.

  155. Schiff N.D. Recovery of consciousness after brain injury: a mesocircuit hypothesis. Trends Neurosci. 2010. 33 (1): 1–9.

  156. Schnakers C., Chatelle C., Majerus S., Gosseries O., De Val M., Laureys S. Assessment and detection of pain in noncommunicative severely brain-injured patients. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010. 10 (11): 1725–1731.

  157. Schnakers C., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Giacino J., Ventura M., Boly M., Majerus S., Moonen G., Laureys S. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment. BMC Neurol. 2009. 9.

  158. Schorr B., Schlee W., Arndt M., Bender A. Coherence in resting-state EEG as a predictor for the recovery from unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. J Neurol. 2016. 263 (5): 937–953.

  159. Seel R.T., Sherer M., Whyte J., Katz D.I., Giacino J.T., Rosenbaum A.M., Hammond F.M., Kalmar K., Pape T.L., Zafonte R., Biester R.C., Kaelin D., Kean J., Zasler N. Assessment scales for disorders of consciousness: Evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice and research. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010. 91 (12): 1795–1813.

  160. Sharova E., Pogosbekyan E., Korobkova E., Zaitsev O., Zakharova N., Chelyapina M., Fadeeva L.M., Oknina L.B., Pronin I.N., Potapov A.A. Inter hemispheric connectivity and attention in patients with disorders of consciousness after severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurol Stroke. 2018. 8 (4).

  161. Sharova E.V., Kotovich J.V., Deza-Araujo Y.I., Smirnov A.S., Gavron A.A., Fadeeva L.M., Chelyapina-Postnikova M.V., Alexandrova E.V., Zhavoronkova L.A., Boldyreva G.N., Verkhlyutov V.M., Kornienko V.N., Pronin I.N. FMRI resting state networks visualization in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Med Vis. 2020. 24 (1): 68–84.

  162. Shea N., Bayne T. The vegetative state and the science of consciousness. Br J Philos Sci. 2010. 61 (3): 459–484.

  163. Shekleton J.A., Parcell D.L., Redman J.R., Phipps-Nelson J., Ponsford J.L., Rajaratnam S.M.W. Sleep disturbance and melatonin levels following traumatic brain injury. Neurology. 2010. 74 (21): 1732–1738.

  164. Shi H., Yang L., Zhao L., Su Z., Mao X., Zhang L., Liu C. Differences of Heart Rate Variability Between Happiness and Sadness Emotion States: A Pilot Study. J Med Biol Eng. 2017. 37 (4): 527–539.

  165. Si J., Zhao R., Zhang Y., Zuo N., Zhang X., Jiang T. A portable fNIRS system with eight channels. Opt Tech Neurosurgery, Neurophotonics, Optogenetics II. 2015. 9305: 93051B.

  166. Siclari F., Baird B., Perogamvros L., Bernardi G., LaRocque J., Riedner B., Boly M., Postle B., Tononi G. The neural correlates of dreaming. bioRxiv. 2014. 012443.

  167. Silva S., De Pasquale F., Vuillaume C., Riu B., Loubinoux I., Geeraerts T., Seguin T., Bounes V., Fourcade O., Demonet J.F., Péran P. Disruption of posteromedial large-scale neural communication predicts recovery from coma. Neurology. 2015. 85 (23): 2036–2044.

  168. Sinitsyn D.O., Legostaeva L.A., Kremneva E.I., Morozova S.N., Poydasheva A.G., Mochalova E.G., Chervyakova O.G., Ryabinkina J.V., Suponeva N.A., Piradov M.A. Degrees of functional connectome abnormality in disorders of consciousness. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018. 39 (7): 2929–2940.

  169. Sitt J.D., King J.R., El Karoui I., Rohaut B., Faugeras F., Gramfort A., Cohen L., Sigman M., Dehaene S., Naccache L. Large scale screening of neural signatures of consciousness in patients in a vegetative or minimally conscious state. Brain. 2014. 137 (8): 2258–2270.

  170. Smith E., Delargy M. Locked-in syndrome. Br Med J. 2005. 330 (7488): 406–409.

  171. Song M., Yang Y., He J., Yang Z., Yu S., Xie Q., Xia X., Dang Y., Zhang Q., Wu X., Cui Y., Hou B., Yu R., Xu R., Jiang T. Prognostication of chronic disorders of consciousness using brain functional networks and clinical characteristics. Elife. 2018a. 7: e36173.

  172. Song M., Zhang Y., Cui Y., Yang Y., Jiang T. Brain Network Studies in Chronic Disorders of Consciousness: Advances and Perspectives. Neurosci Bull. 2018b. 34 (4): 592–604.

  173. Stender J., Gosseries O., Bruno M.A., Charland-Verville V., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Demertzi A., Chatelle C., Thonnard M., Thibaut A., Heine L., Soddu A., Boly M., Schnakers C., Gjedde A., Laureys S. Diagnostic precision of PET imaging and functional MRI in disorders of consciousness: A clinical validation study. Lancet. 2014. 384 (9942): 514–522.

  174. Steppacher I., Eickhoff S., Jordanov T., Kaps M., Witzke W., Kissler J. N400 predicts recovery from disorders of consciousness. Ann Neurol. 2013. 73 (5): 594–602.

  175. Steppacher I., Fuchs P., Kaps M., Nussbeck F., Kissler J. A Tree of Life? Multivariate logistic outcome-prediction in disorders of consciousness. 2020. 34 (3): 399–406.

  176. Stevens R.D., Sutter R. Prognosis in severe brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2013. 41 (4): 1104–1123.

  177. Sussman T.J., Jin J., Mohanty A. Top-down and bottom-up factors in threat-related perception and attention in anxiety. Biol Psychol. 2016. 121: 160–172.

  178. Van Der Eerden A.W., Khalilzadeh O., Perlbarg V., Dinkel J., Sanchez P., Vos P.E., Luyt C.E., Stevens R.D., Menjot de Champfleur N., Delmaire C., Tollard E., Gupta R., Dormont D., Laureys S., Benali H., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Galanaud D., Puybasset L. White matter changes in comatose survivors of anoxic ischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury: Comparative diffusion-tensor imaging study. Radiology. 2014. 270 (2): 506–516.

  179. van Erp W.S., Lavrijsen J.C.M., Vos P.E., Bor H., Laureys S., Koopmans R.T. The vegetative state: Prevalence, misdiagnosis, and treatment limitations. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015. 16 (1): 85.e9-85.e14.

  180. Vanhaudenhuyse A., Demertzi A., Schabus M., Noirhomme Q., Bredart S., Boly M., Phillips C., Soddu A., Luxen A., Moonen G., Laureys S. Two distinct neuronal networks mediate the awareness of environment and of self. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011. 23 (3): 570–578.

  181. Vanhaudenhuyse A., Laureys S., Perrin F. Cognitive event-related potentials in comatose and post-comatose states. Neurocrit Care. 2008. 8 (2): 262–270.

  182. Varotto G., Fazio P., Rossi Sebastiano D., Duran D., D’Incerti L., Parati E., Sattin D., Leonardi M., Franceschetti S., Panzica F. Altered resting state effective connectivity in long-standing vegetative state patients: An EEG study. Clin Neurophysiol. 2014. 125 (1): 63–68.

  183. Veniero D., Maioli C., Miniussi C. Potentiation of short-latency cortical responses by high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2010. 104 (3): 1578–1588.

  184. Villringer A., Dirnagl U. Coupling of brain activity and cerebral blood flow: Basis of functional neuroimaging. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev. 1995. 7 (3): 240–276.

  185. Wang F., He Y., Pan J., Xie Q., Yu R., Zhang R., Li Y. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection. Sci Rep. 2015. 5.

  186. Wannez S., Heine L., Thonnard M., Gosseries O., Laureys S. The repetition of behavioral assessments in diagnosis of disorders of consciousness. Ann Neurol. 2017. 81 (6): 883–889.

  187. Wijnen V., Heutink M., Boxtel Gjm., Eilander H., Gelder B. Autonomic reactivity to sensory stimulation is related to consciousness level after severe traumatic brain injury. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006. 117 (8): 1794–1807.

  188. Wijnen V., van Boxtel G., Eilander H., de Gelder B. Mismatch negativity predicts recovery from the vegetative state. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007. 118 (3): 597–605.

  189. Wilson C. Aetiological differences in neuroanatomy of the vegetative state: Insights from diffusion tensor imaging and functional implications. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010. 81 (5): 475–476.

  190. Wolpaw J.R., Birbaumer N. Brain–computer interfaces for communication and control. Textb Neural Repair Rehabil. 2012. 602–614.

  191. Wright J.E., Vogel J.A., Sampson J.B., Knapik J.J., Patton J.F., Daniels W.L. Effects of travel across time zones (jet-lag) on exercise capacity and performance. Aviat Sp Environ Med. 1983. 54 (2): 132–137.

  192. Wu X., Zhang J., Cui Z., Tang W., Shao C., Hu J., Zhu J., Zhou L., Zhao Y., Lu, L. Chen G., Northoff G., Gong G., Mao Y., He Y. White matter deficits underlie the loss of consciousness level and predict recovery outcome in disorders of consciousness. arXiv preprint arXiv:1611.08310 2016.

  193. Wu X., Zou Q., Hu J., Tang W., Mao Y., Gao L., Zhu J., Jin Y., Wu X., Lu L., Zhang Y., Zhang Y., Dai Z., Gao J.H., Weng X., Zhou L., Northoff G., Giacino J.T., He Y., Yang Y. Intrinsic functional connectivity patterns predict consciousness level and recovery outcome in acquired brain injury. J Neurosci. 2015. 35 (37): 12932–12946.

  194. Xu W., Jiang G., Chen Y., Wang X., Jiang X. Prediction of minimally conscious state with somatosensory evoked potentials in long-term unconscious patients after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012. 72 (4): 1024–1030.

  195. Yamamoto T., Katayama Y., Kobayashi K., Oshima H., Fukaya C., Tsubokawa T. Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of vegetative state. Eur J Neurosci. 2010. 32 (7): 1145–1151.

  196. Yao S., Song J., Gao L., Yan Y., Huang C., Ding H., Huang H., He Y., Sun R., Xu G. Thalamocortical Sensorimotor Circuit Damage Associated with Disorders of Consciousness for Diffuse Axonal Injury Patients. J Neurol Sci. 2015. 356 (1–2): 168–174.

  197. Zakharova N., Kornienko V., Potapov A., Pronin I. Neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury. Neuroimaging Trauma Brain Inj. 2014. 9783319043: 1–159.

  198. Zhang J., Wei R.L., Peng G.P., Zhou J.J., Wu M., He F.P., Pan G., Gao J., Luo, B.Y. Correlations between diffusion tensor imaging and levels of consciousness in patients with traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2017. 7 (1).

  199. Zhang Y., Yang Y., Si J., Xia X., He J., Jiang T. Influence of inter-stimulus interval of spinal cord stimulation in patients with disorders of consciousness: A preliminary functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. NeuroImage Clin. 2018. 17: 1–9.

  200. Zheng Z.S., Reggente N., Lutkenhoff E., Owen A.M., Monti M.M. Disentangling disorders of consciousness: Insights from diffusion tensor imaging and machine learning. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017. 38 (1): 431–443.

  201. Zigmantovich A., Oknina L., Kopachka M., Masherow E., Alexandrova E. Task-Related Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Early Detection of Consciousness in Patients With Severe Brain Injury. Arch Clin Biomed Res. 2019. 3: 374–385.

Дополнительные материалы отсутствуют.