Журнал высшей нервной деятельности им. И.П. Павлова, 2021, T. 71, № 1, стр. 3-38

Каннабиноиды, эндоканнабиноидная система и когнитивные функции: враги или друзья?

В. Ф. Кичигина *

ФГБУН Институт теоретической и экспериментальной биофизики РАН
Пущино, Россия

* E-mail: vkitchigina@gmail.com

Поступила в редакцию 21.07.2020
После доработки 17.09.2020
Принята к публикации 05.10.2020

Аннотация

Каннабиноиды – это природные соединения, обнаруженные в конопле (Cannabis sativa). Научный интерес к каннабиноидам возник после обнаружения в конопле основного психоактивного компонента, Δ9-тетрагидроканнабинола. Впоследствии в мозге были выявлены рецепторы, на которые он воздействует, а также лиганды этих рецепторов, эндогенные каннабиноиды (ЭК), образующие вместе с ферментами их синтеза, транспорта и деградации эндоканнабиноидную систему (ЭКС). Интерес к ЭК в последние годы неуклонно возрастает, особенно после обнаружения их важной роли в когнитивных функциях. Они являются регуляторами синаптической передачи в мозге, опосредуют многочисленные формы пластичности и контролируют нейронный энергетический метаболизм. ЭК оказывают свое влияние посредством ряда механизмов и взаимодействий с нейромедиаторами, нейротрофическими факторами и нейропептидами. Основными функциями ЭК в мозге являются ретроградная синаптическая сигнализациия и нейромодуляция, благодаря которым осуществляется поддержание клеточного гомеостаза. Информация о влиянии каннабиноидных препаратов на когнитивные функции весьма противоречива. Причины противоречий могут заключаться в том, что строгих научных данных клинических и социологических исследований пока недостаточно, а в экспериментах на животных разные авторы используют различные методы и подходы для воздействий на ЭКС. Так, эффекты могут различаться в зависимости от применяемых веществ, их дозы и способа введения, а также от выбранных для тестирования задач и экспериментальных условий. Существует обширная литература, указывающая на защитный эффект активации ЭКС при нейродегенеративных заболеваниях у человека и на моделях когнитивного дефицита у животных. В настоящем обзоре рассматриваются данные, свидетельствующие о влияниях каннабиноидных препаратов и активации ЭК-системы на когнитивные функции в нормальном мозге и при нейродегенеративных заболеваниях, болезни Альцгеймера и височной эпилепсии. Обсуждаются также возможные причины противоречий в имеющихся данных.

Ключевые слова: эндоканнабиноиды, ретроградная трансмиссия, когнитивные функции, обучение, память, консолидация, нейромедиаторы, болезнь Альцгеймера, височная эпилепсия, протекция

DOI: 10.31857/S0044467721010068

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Дополнительные материалы отсутствуют.